It’s franchises all the way down

Over lunch, I wondered aloud how many of the 100 top grossing movies were either sequels or the first film in a franchise.

Take a moment and think about it.

Of the top movies, what percentage are part of a larger franchise? And we’re only looking at theatrical. For this exercise, home video sequels don’t count.

Around the table, guesses ranged from 50 to 83 movies.

The answer is 86. Yes, 86 of the 100 all-time worldwide top-grossing movies are part of a franchise. (See Update 2 below.)

Here is the list:

Rank Title Type
1 Avatar Franchise Origin†
2 Titanic Single
3 Star Wars: The Force Awakens Franchise
4 Jurassic World Franchise
5 Marvel’s The Avengers Franchise
6 Furious 7 Franchise
7 Avengers: Age of Ultron Franchise
8 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 Franchise
9 Frozen Franchise Origin†
10 Iron Man 3 Franchise
11 Minions Franchise
12 Transformers: Dark of the Moon Franchise
13 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Franchise
14 Skyfall Franchise
15 Transformers: Age of Extinction Franchise
16 The Dark Knight Rises Franchise
17 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest Franchise
18 Toy Story 3 Franchise
19 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Franchise
20 Jurassic Park Franchise Origin
21 Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace Franchise
22 Alice in Wonderland (2010) Franchise Origin
23 The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Franchise
24 The Dark Knight Franchise
25 The Lion King Single
26 Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Franchise Origin
27 Despicable Me 2 Franchise
28 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End Franchise
29 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1 Franchise
30 The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug Franchise
31 The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies Franchise
32 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Franchise
33 Finding Nemo Franchise Origin†
34 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Franchise
35 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Franchise
36 Shrek 2 Franchise
37 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Franchise
38 Spider-Man 3 Franchise
39 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs Franchise
40 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Franchise
41 Spectre Franchise
42 Ice Age: Continental Drift Franchise
43 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Franchise
44 The Hunger Games: Catching Fire Franchise
45 Inside Out Single
46 Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith Franchise
47 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen Franchise
48 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 2 Franchise
49 Inception Single
50 Spider-Man Franchise
51 Independence Day Franchise
52 Shrek the Third Franchise
53 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Franchise
54 E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial Single
55 Fast & Furious 6 Franchise
56 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Franchise
57 Spider-Man 2 Franchise
58 Star Wars Franchise Origin
59 Guardians of the Galaxy Franchise Origin
60 2012 Single
61 Maleficent Franchise*
62 The Da Vinci Code Franchise Origin
63 The Amazing Spider-Man Franchise
64 The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 Franchise
65 Shrek Forever After Franchise
66 X-Men: Days of Future Past Franchise
67 Madagascar 3: Europe’s Most Wanted Franchise
68 The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Franchise
69 Monsters University Franchise
70 The Matrix Reloaded Franchise
71 Up Single
72 Gravity Single
73 Captain America: The Winter Soldier Franchise
74 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 1 Franchise
75 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Franchise
76 The Twilight Saga: New Moon Franchise
77 Transformers Franchise Origin
78 The Amazing Spider-Man 2 Franchise
79 The Twilight Saga: Eclipse Franchise
80 Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol Franchise
81 The Hunger Games Franchise Origin
82 Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation Franchise
83 Forrest Gump Single
84 Interstellar Single
85 The Sixth Sense Single
86 Man of Steel Franchise
87 Kung Fu Panda 2 Franchise
88 Ice Age: The Meltdown Franchise
89 Big Hero 6 Single
90 Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Franchise
91 The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 2 Franchise
92 Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones Franchise
93 Thor: The Dark World Franchise
94 Kung Fu Panda Franchise Origin
95 The Incredibles Franchise Origin
96 Fast Five Franchise
97 Hancock Single
98 MIB 3 Franchise
99 Iron Man 2 Franchise
100 Ratatouille Single

Films marked † have a sequel in production or very nearly so. Films marked * could be considered single or part of a franchise.

It’s worth taking a closer look at the 14 films that never got a big-screen sequel, and why:

Titanic, 2012, Interstellar, Gravity
You can’t sink the same boat twice. (Or blow up the same planet/shuttle.)

There was apparently talk of a sequel at some point.

Forrest Gump
Eric Roth actually wrote a sequel.

The Lion King, Ratatouille, Up, Inside Out, Big Hero 6
There are rumblings of a Big Hero 6 sequel, and it’s not impossible to imagine big-screen sequels to all of these.

Inception, The Sixth Sense
DiCaprio has never done a sequel. But could you do Inception 2 without him? Sure. And you could do a Sixth Sense sequel without Bruce Willis. I bet we’ll get one of these.

Not a hit, not a bomb, but not crying out for a sequel. Also, it’s low enough on the list that it will be knocked off soon.

Whenever you talk about the top-grossing movies, the first question is always, “What about adjusting for inflation?” (Also known as, “What about Gone with the Wind?”)

Fine. Let’s do that.

Here are the top 100 movies of all time, adjusted for inflation:

Rank Title Year Type
1 Gone with the Wind 1939^ Single
2 Star Wars 1977^ Franchise Origin
3 The Sound of Music 1965 Single
4 E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial 1982^ Single
5 Titanic 1997^ Single
6 The Ten Commandments 1956 Single
7 Jaws 1975 Franchise Origin
8 Doctor Zhivago 1965 Single
9 The Exorcist 1973^ Franchise Origin
10 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937^ Single
11 Star Wars: The Force Awakens 2015 Franchise
12 101 Dalmatians 1961^ Franchise
13 The Empire Strikes Back 1980^ Franchise
14 Ben-Hur 1959 Single
15 Avatar 2009^ Franchise Origin
16 Return of the Jedi 1983^ Franchise
17 Jurassic Park 1993^ Franchise Origin
18 Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace 1999^ Franchise
19 The Lion King 1994^ Single
20 The Sting 1973 Franchise
21 Raiders of the Lost Ark 1981^ Franchise Origin
22 The Graduate 1967^ Single
23 Fantasia 1941^ Single
24 Jurassic World 2015 Franchise
25 The Godfather 1972^ Franchise Origin
26 Forrest Gump 1994^ Single
27 Mary Poppins 1964^ Single
28 Grease 1978^ Franchise Origin
29 Marvel’s The Avengers 2012 Franchise
30 Thunderball 1965 Franchise
31 The Dark Knight 2008^ Franchise
32 The Jungle Book 1967^ Single
33 Sleeping Beauty 1959^ Single
34 Ghostbusters 1984^ Franchise Origin
35 Shrek 2 2004 Franchise
36 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid 1969 Single
37 Love Story 1970 Franchise
38 Spider-Man 2002 Franchise Origin
39 Independence Day 1996^ Franchise Origin
40 Home Alone 1990 Franchise Origin
41 Pinocchio 1940^ Single
42 Cleopatra (1963) 1963 Single
43 Beverly Hills Cop 1984 Franchise Origin
44 Goldfinger 1964 Franchise
45 Airport 1970 Franchise Origin
46 American Graffiti 1973 Franchise
47 The Robe 1953 Single
48 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest 2006 Franchise
49 Around the World in 80 Days 1956 Single
50 Bambi 1942^ Single
51 Blazing Saddles 1974^ Single
52 Batman 1989 Franchise Origin
53 The Bells of St. Mary’s 1945 Single
54 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King 2003^ Franchise
55 Finding Nemo 2003^ Franchise Origin
56 The Towering Inferno 1974 Single
57 Spider-Man 2 2004 Franchise
58 My Fair Lady 1964 Single
59 The Greatest Show on Earth 1952 Single
60 National Lampoon’s Animal House 1978^ Single
61 The Passion of the Christ 2004^ Single
62 Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith 2005^ Franchise
63 Back to the Future 1985 Franchise Origin
64 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 2002^ Franchise
65 The Dark Knight Rises 2012 Franchise
66 The Sixth Sense 1999 Single
67 Superman 1978 Franchise Origin
68 Tootsie 1982 Single
69 Smokey and the Bandit 1977 Franchise Origin
70 West Side Story 1961 Single
71 Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone 2001 Franchise Origin
72 Lady and the Tramp 1955^ Single
73 Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1977^ Single
74 Lawrence of Arabia 1962^ Single
75 The Rocky Horror Picture Show 1975 Single
76 Rocky 1976 Franchise Origin
77 The Best Years of Our Lives 1946 Single
78 The Poseidon Adventure 1972 Franchise Origin
79 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 2001^ Franchise Origin
80 Twister 1996 Single
81 Men in Black 1997 Franchise Origin
82 The Bridge on the River Kwai 1957 Single
83 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen 2009 Franchise
84 It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World 1963 Single
85 Swiss Family Robinson 1960 Single
86 One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest 1975 Single
87 M.A.S.H. 1970 Single
88 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 1984 Franchise
89 Avengers: Age of Ultron 2015 Franchise
90 Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones 2002^ Franchise
91 Mrs. Doubtfire 1993 Single
92 Aladdin 1992 Single
93 Toy Story 3 2010 Franchise
94 Ghost 1990 Single
95 The Hunger Games: Catching Fire 2013 Franchise
96 Duel in the Sun 1946 Single
97 The Hunger Games 2012 Franchise Origin
98 Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl 2003 Franchise
99 House of Wax 1953 Single
100 Rear Window 1954^ Single

The ^ indicates that a film has been re-released, which can raise its rank. When in doubt, I’ve labelled films as Single (e.g. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs).

What can we learn from looking at the inflation-adjusted list? Well, of the top 100 movies, 49 are neither a sequel nor the start of a franchise. That’s a huge difference from the non-adjusted list.

Hollywood didn’t always make sequels from every hit.


A few observations I’ve made from this exercise:

  1. Franchises are a huge part of how Hollywood makes money, not just now but historically.
  2. Franchises have to start somewhere. You don’t get Minions without Despicable Me (which isn’t in the top 100).
  3. Some franchises I’ve ignored (e.g. The Hobbit, Transformers) have made bank.
  4. James Bond is a good business to be in.
  5. There’s a reason studios don’t want you to kill the hero at the end of the movie.

Update #1 (1/29/16):

A reader asks what percentage of the top movies are sequels — that is, part of a franchise but not the origin.

On the non-inflation list, 73 of the top 100 are sequels.

Update #2 (1/30/16):

In the first list, I had mistakenly marked Gravity as a franchise. It’s a Single. So that knocks the total number of franchise movies down to 86.

In the second list, readers pointed out that several of the Single movies actually did have sequels: The Sting, Love Story and American Graffiti. I’ve adjusted the number of non-franchise movies down from 52 to 49, and fixed the graphic.

Finding Dory, the sequel to Finding Nemo, comes out June 17th. Here’s the trailer. It’s certainly going to exist, which means Finding Nemo counts as a Franchise Origin.

A person could reasonably argue that the Avatar and Frozen sequels won’t happen. But as someone who knows both the industry and the people involved, I very strongly suspect they will. I’m keeping them as Franchise Origins.

Weekend Read can read scripts aloud

Weekend Read, our app for reading screenplays on the iPhone and iPad, can also read them aloud. Here’s how to do it.

Ask Siri to “speak screen.” If you don’t already have Speech turned on, Siri will offer a link to the proper settings page:

siri setting

Tap Open Settings, then switch on Speak Screen.

speech settings

While you’re here, you can also choose a speaking voice in the Voices menu.

Then go back to Weekend Read and open a script.

To have it start reading aloud, swipe down from the top of the screen with two fingers, or just ask Siri to “speak screen.”

A set of controls appears, allowing you jump forward and back paragraphs, and adjust the reading speed.

speech HUD

Once you start it speaking, you can even change apps and it will keep going.

How did we do it? Honestly, we didn’t have to do a lot.

Almost all of this is built-in functionality provided by Apple’s Accessibility features. Behind the scenes, Weekend Read converts everything to Fountain, a plain-text format that feeds right into the system. By keeping it simple (and not cheating with view controllers) it just works.

For an upcoming version of Weekend Read, we’re working on small improvements such as “Mary says” and automatic expansion of abbreviations like “INT” and “V.O.”

You can find Weekend Read in the App Store.

My writing setup, 2016

In 2011, I wrote a post detailing my writing setup. Over the past five years several things have changed, so I thought I’d give it an update.

Where applicable, I’ll include links. (Amazon links include my referral code, so you’ll help keep me stocked with pens.)

I work in an office built over my garage. My assistant Stuart works downstairs. Twice a week the rest of my staff (Nima and Dustin) comes in to work on app stuff and other projects. This year, we finally added a giant whiteboard. It’s been a godsend for planning and visual thinking.

I’m “in the office” from 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m., but I wander in and out of the house pretty freely.

I do a fair amount of my morning work — emails, listening to cuts of Scriptnotes — while walking on the treadmill. I MacGyvered an old film festival lanyard to hold my iPad, and use an Apple bluetooth keyboard. I find I can think coherently up to about 3.2 miles per hour. (Beyond that speed, it’s genuine cardio and I can only listen to podcasts and such.)

When I’m really writing — that is, buckling down on a specific draft of a specific movie — I do a lot of writing sprints. It’s one hour of focused writing with no distractions. If I do three of these a day, that’s a lot of pages written.

Getting away

When I start a new screenplay, I generally go away for a few days. I find that barricading myself in a new hotel in a new city helps me break the back of a story. I hand-write pages, trying to plow through as much as possible; my record is 21 pages in a day. Writing by hand keeps me from editing and second-guessing. At the start, it’s crucial to generate a critical mass of pages.

Every morning, I send what I’ve written to my assistant to type up. The Scannable app is great for this.

I find I can generally get 40 decent pages out of a good barricading session. I won’t paste the scenes together until I’m more than halfway through a script.


When writing by hand, I like a white, lined, letter-sized writing pad with a very stiff back. It should barely bend. I’ve been using some generic Staples brand.

My preferred pen is the black Pilot G2 (0.7mm size). It’s cheap; it writes consistently; I never worry about losing one. For proofreading, a colored felt-tip pen is key. I like the Papermate Flairs. Again, cheap and losable.

I alternate between index cards and whiteboards for mapping out stories. If you’re going to be working in television, get comfortable with the whiteboard, because you’re going to be spending a lot of time staring at one.

My main computer is a 27-inch iMac. I love it.

Overall, I print very little these days. Almost everything is PDFs. But last year we replaced our decade-old laser printer with the Brother HL5470DW. It’s crazy how cheap and fast it is, and it uses a lot less power.

Stuart uses the DYMO LabelWriter 4XL thermal label printer for packages. It ends up being faster, better and cheaper than using laser printer labels.

Years ago, I had horrible carpal-tunnel problems, so I changed my setup significantly. I use the SafeType keyboard and an Evoluent vertical mouse. The keyboard is great, but command-key combos are a bear with it, so I’ve mapped a Logitech G13 gamepad to handle most of them. My desk raises so I can use it standing up. I try to be on my feet at least half the day.

For travel and kitchen duty, I have a 13-inch Macbook Pro. It’s good, but the screen is always getting overwhelmed with windows.

I used to talk on the phone a lot more, and found the Plantronics S12 headset essential. I still use it, but phone conversations are not nearly as important as they were just a few years ago.

We generally record Scriptnotes over Skype. I’m using the Shure SM7B microphone and Sony MDR-7506 headphones. This combo has worked well enough for me, but everyone has different opinions and preferences.

For recording in the field, I use the Zoom H5 four-track recorder. I love it.

When recording in the office with multiple guests, I use the Mackie 802VLZ4 8-channel mixer with a bunch of XLR mics and send the output directly into my MacBook with this cable.

After years of not using Time Machine, I just set up a one terabyte Samsung T1 Portable SSD to use as a backup drive. (If you get it, follow the advice in the “Most Helpful” Amazon review to remove the extraneous software Samsung installs.)


I do all of my writing in the Highland beta. Highland was originally just for screenwriting, but version 2 adds robust Markdown support, so now it’s the only app I need for writing anything — including this blog post.

Slack is absolutely transformative. Our team doesn’t use email anymore. Everything is in Slack, sorted in channels.

Dropbox still seems like magic. In addition to storing my active projects, I keep a folder named Pending in the Dropbox with an alias on the desktop. Anything that would normally clutter up the desktop, I throw in Pending.

I still use Evernote, but mostly for household things like the grocery list. Random links go to Pinboard instead. (On iOS, I use the Pinner app.)

I’ve used a lot of GTD productivity apps over the years, including OmniFocus and Things. For the past few months, I’ve been using 2Do, which works very well on both Mac and iOS.

For outlining and show notes, I love WorkFlowy. Because it’s web-based, we can all edit the same document.

I use both Mail and Airmail, with some addresses going to Sparrow instead.1 I use Google Calendar with Fantastical 2.

I do all my RSS-reading on the iPad, using Reeder.

What I’d change

I’m pretty happy with my setup, but there’s definitely room for improvement.

My mail setup is a mess. The right combination of rules would probably allow me to sort out the wheat from the chaff, but I haven’t invested the energy. Plus, getting it to work properly in iOS would be a big challenge. Increasingly, the iPhone is where I’m doing email triage.

I’d like to push more of my email over to Slack, where it would be a better fit. An example is my D&D group. It’s six writers, so anytime there’s a conversation, it’s a chain of 20 emails, and you can never tell who is responding to what. In Slack, that thread would make a lot more sense.

Overall, the best thing that could happen to email would be to get rid of it.

  1. Google discontinued Sparrow, but the Mac app still works for now.

Tuesday Reviewsday, vol. 2

One of my goals for 2016 is to be better about writing reviews for the products I love. Every Tuesday I’ll be leaving reviews on the applicable store.

Today’s picks are:

  • Noizio (iOS) A really good background-noise maker, and free!
  • 2Do (iOS/Mac) A fantastic getting-stuff-done app that’s replaced OmniFocus for me.
  • Reply All (podcast) A “show about the internet,” but really about modern culture.
  • Forbidden Island (Amazon) A great cooperative game.

If you’re looking for something to review, many readers are probably familiar with some of the things we make, including Highland, Weekend Read and Writer Emergency Pack.

Podcasts are especially review-dependent, because they signal to the powers at iTunes to feature certain shows. A review for Scriptnotes would be much-appreciated.

The Script Graveyard

Scriptnotes: Ep. 234

Where do screenplays go when they die? John and Craig take a look at their movies that never were, looking for patterns among dozens of their unproduced works. What can screenwriters learn from the dead, and is it ever worth trying to resurrect these flatliners?

We also have lots of follow-up on finding a place to write, and news of an old-man-robbers movie already underway.

Yesterday’s live show will be released as an upcoming episode.


You can download the episode here: AAC | mp3.

UPDATE 1-28-16: The transcript of this episode can be found here.

The rise and fall of Relativity

Benjamin Wallace looks at Ryan Kavanaugh and the implosion of Relativity:

Not yet 30 when he founded Relativity Media in 2004, he very quickly became not only a power player in Hollywood but the man who might just save it. With a dwindling number of studios putting out ever fewer movies, other than ones featuring name-brand super­heroes, Kavanaugh became first a studio financier and then a fresh-faced buyer of textured, mid-budget films. To bankers, Kavanaugh appeared to have cracked the code, having come up with a way to forecast a famously unpredictable business by replacing the vagaries of intuition with the certainties of math.

As we’ve discussed on the podcast, anyone who claims to have developed a mathematical system for picking hits is either delusional or willfully deceptive. Data analysis relies on numbers, and it’s easy to cherry-pick:

Relativity actually did look at whether to finance that Untouchables prequel, Capone Rising, with Nicolas Cage and Gerard Butler attached to star and Brian De Palma to direct. The company ended up passing, but someone close to the financial modeling recalls doing a double take at the rosiness of the Relativity algorithm’s prediction. “I read the input log for it. I thought: What’s missing? I said, ‘Where’s Snake Eyes?’” — a Cage flop. “They said, ‘Uh, we’re leaving that out.’”

What Kavanaugh was selling wasn’t an algorithm as much as a narrative: you can trust me, because look at these other people who trust me.

Say you’re a Chinese billionaire looking to invest in Hollywood. Meeting Kavanaugh, it was easy to see how successful he was. He had his name on lots of movies, some of them award-winners. He had celebrity friends and a private jet. He made huge donations to charities. And there were glowing articles portraying him as a boy-wonder maverick shaking up the system.

The thing is, almost everyone in town knew it couldn’t last. When you were selling a spec script, you wanted Relativity to bid, but you didn’t want them to win. You wanted the movie to get made, and everyone knew the clock was ticking.

Relativity filed for bankruptcy in July.

To Hollywood’s more sophisticated power players, Relativity’s declaration of bankruptcy was less intriguing than how long Kavanaugh had been able to stave it off, reeling in money over and over again despite mountains of evidence that the product he was selling was not what he claimed it to be. “You have to give him credit for keeping it going as long as he did,” says an old hand at a major talent agency. “The people inside the system were in on the joke.”

I’ve never met Kavanaugh, and as far as I know, he hasn’t been involved in any of my movies. I see him at parties and premieres, and he’s always struck me as an interesting character: bouncing and bold, eager to be at the center of the action.

It’s tempting to dismiss Kavanaugh as an opportunist, but I think that’s unfair. From the very start, Hollywood has depended on dreamers and schemers. Many of our best films exist only because someone was brave or foolish enough to risk money on them — and charismatic enough to keep finding new money when the first batch ran out.

The fall of Relativity makes for good reading, but I wouldn’t mistake it for a cautionary tale. Right now, young upstarts are devising the next way to raise hundreds of millions to make movies. Whoever they are, we need them. We always will.